Wood Preservative Science Council - Center for facts about CCA-Treated Wood
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Current as of April 2008


The following is a partial listing of selected pertinent scientific literature related to the science behind CCA-treated wood.  It is not intended to be a complete listing.

CCA-Treated Wood and Arsenic

Barraj, L.M., J.S. Tsuji, and C.G. Scrafford. 2007. The SHEDS-Wood model: incorporation of observational data to estimate exposure to arsenic for children playing on CCA-treated wood structures. Environ Health Perspect 115: 781-786

Kwon, E., Zhang, H., Wang, Z., Ghangri, G.S., Lu, X., Fok, N.,Gabos, S., Li, X., and Le, X.C. 2004. Arsenic on the hands of children after playing in playgrounds. Environ Health Perspectives 112(14): 1375-1380.

Georgopoulos, P.G., S-W Wang, Y-C Yang, J Xue, VG Zartarian, T. McCurdy, and H. Ozkaynak. 2007. Biologically based modeling of multimedia, multipathway, multiroute population exposures to arsenic. J Expos Sci Environ Epidemiol (in press), advance online publication, 12 December 2007, doi:10/1038/sj.jes.7500637

Shalat, S.L., H.M. Solo-Gabriele, L.E. Fleming, B.T. Buckley, K. Black, M. Jimenez, T. Shibata, M. Durbin, J. Graygo, W. Stephan, and G. Van De Bogart. 2006. A pilot study of children's exposure to CCA-treated wood from playground equipment. Science Total Environ 367(1):80-88

Tsuji, J., L.J. Yost, L.M. Barraj, C.G. Scrafford, and P.J. Mink. 2007. Use of background inorganic arsenic exposures to provide perspective on risk assessment results. Reg Toxicol Pharmacol 48(1):59-69

Yost, L.J., Schoof, R.A., and Aucoin, R.. 1998. Intake of inorganic arsenic in the North American diet. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 4(1):137-152

Yost, L.J., Tao, S., Ega, S.K., Barraj, L.M., Smith, K.M., Tsuji, J.S., Lowney, Y.W., Schoof, R.A., and Rachman, N.J. 2004. Estimation of dietary intake of inorganic arsenic in U.S. children. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 10:473-483

Wester, R.C., X. Hui, S. Barbadillo, H.I. Maibach, Y.W. Lowney, R.A. Schoof, S.E. Holm, and M.V. Ruby. 2004. In vivo percutaneous absorption of arsenic from water and CCA-treated wood residue. Toxicol Sci 79: 287-295

Arsenic Toxicology and Epidemiology

ATSDR.  2007.  Toxicological Profile for Arsenic.  US Dept of Health and Human Services.  Available at http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxpro2.html#-P-.

Baastrup, R., M. Sorensen, T. Balstrom, K. Frederiksen, C.L. Larsen, A. Tjonneland, K. Overvad, and O. Raaschou-Nielsen. 2008. Arsenic in drinking-water and risk for cancer in Denmark. Environ Health Perspect 116:231-237

Bates, M.N. A.H. Smith, and K.P. Cantor. 1995. Case-control study of bladder cancer and arsenic in drinking water. Am. J. Epidemiol 141(6):523-530

Bates, M.N., Rey, O.A., Biggs, M.L., Hopenhayn, C., Moore, L.E., Kalman, D., Steinmaus, C., and Smith, A.H. 2004. Case-control study of bladder cancer and exposure to arsenic in Argentina. Am J. Epidemiol 159:381-389

Brown, K.G. 2007. How creditable are cancer risk estimates from the S.W. Taiwan database for arsenic in drinking water?. Hum Ecol Risk Assessment 13:180-190

Chen, C., Hus, L., Chiou, H., Hsueh, Y., Chen, S., Wu, M., and Chen, C. 2004. Ingested arsenic, cigarette smoking, and lung cancer risk. A follow-up study in arseniasis-endemic areas in Taiwan. JAMA 292(24): 2984-2990

Clewell, H.J., R.S. Thomas, P. R. Gentry, K.S. Crump, E.M. Kenyon, H.A. El-Masri, and J.W. Yager. 2007. Research toward the development of a biologically based dose response assessment for inorganic arsenic carcinogenicity: A progress report. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 222(3):388-398.

Frost, F., Caurn, G., and Brown, K.G. 2002. Detection of excess arsenic-related cancer risks. Environmental Health Perspectives 110(1):A12-A13 (Correspondence)

Guo, H.R., and Valberg, P.A. 1997. Evaluation of the validity of the US EPA's cancer risk assessment of arsenic for low-level exposures: a likelihood ration approach. Enviro Geochemistry and Health 19:133-141

Karagas, M.R., T.A. Stukel, J.S. Morris, T.D. Tosteson, J.E. Weiss, S.K. Spencer, and E.R. Greenberg. 2001. Skin cancer risk in relation to toenail arsenic concentrations in a US population-based case-control study. Am J Epidemiol 153:559-65

Kurttio, P., E. Pukkala, H. Kahelin, A. Auvinen, and J. Pekkanen. 1999. Arsenic concentrations in well water and risk of bladder and kidney cancer in Finland. Environ. Health Perspect. 107(9):705-710

Lamm, S., and Kruse, M.B. 2005. Arsenic ingestion and bladder cancer mortality - What do the dose-response relationships suggest about mechanism?. Hum. Ecol. Risk Assess. 11(2): 433-450.

Lamm, S.H., A. Engel, C.A. Penn, R. Chen, and M. Feinleib. 2006. Arsenic cancer risk confounder in Southwest Taiwan dataset. Environ Health Perspec 114(7): 1077-1082

Lamm, S.H., Byrd, Kruse, M.B., Feinleib, M., and Lai, S. 2003. Bladder cancer and arsenic exposure: Differences in the two populations enrolled in a study in southwest Taiwan. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 16:355-368

Lamm, S.H., Engel, A., Kruse, M.B., Feinleib, M., Byrd, D.M., Lai, S., and Wilson, R. 2004. Arsenic in drinking water and bladder cancer mortality in the United States: an analysis based on 133 U.S. counties and 30 years of observation. J Occup Environ Med. 46(3):298-306

Michaud, D.S., Wright, M.E., Canton, K.P., Taylor, P.R., Virtamo, J., and Albanes, D. 2004. Arsenic concentrations in prediagnostic toenails and the risk of bladder cancer in a cohort study of male smokers. Am J Epidemiol 160:853-859

Mitra, S.R., Guha Mazumder, D.N., Basu, A., Block, G., Haque, R. Samanta, S., Ghosh, N., Smith, M.M.H., von Ehrenstein, O.S., and Smith. A.H. 2004. Nutritional factors and susceptibility to arsenic-caused skin cancers in West Bengal, India. Environmental Health Perspectives 112(10): 1104-1109

Morales, K.H., L. Ryan, T-L. Kuo, M-M. Wu, and C-J. Chen. 2000. Risk of internal cancers from arsenic in drinking water. Environ. Health Perspectives 108(7): 655-661

Rossman, T.G. 2003. Mechanism of arsenic carcinogenesis: an integrated approach. Mutat Res 533:37-65

Rossman, T.G., Uddin, A.N., Burns, F.J., and Bosland, M.C. 2002. Arsenite cocarcinogenesis: An animal model derived from genetic toxicology studies. Environ Health Perspect 110 (Suppl. 5): 749-752

Rossman, T.G., Uddin, A.N., and Burns, F.J. 2004. Evidence that arsenite acts as a cocarcinogen in skin cancer. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 198(3):394-404

Schoen, A., Beck, B., Sharma, R., and Dube, E. 2004. Arsenic toxicity at low doses: epidemiological and mode of action considerations. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 198:253-267

Schoof, R.A., Eickhoff, J., Yost, E.A., Crecelius, F.A., Cragin, D.W., Meacher, D.M., and Menzel, D.B. 1999. Dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic. pp 81-88 in Arsenic Exposure and Health Effects. Chappell, W.R., Abernathy, C.O., and Calderon R.L. (Eds). Elsevier Science B.V.

Schoof, R.A., Yost, L.J., Eickhoff, J., Crecelius, E.A., Cragin, D.W., Meacher, D.M., and Menzel, D.B. 1999. A market basket survey of inorganic arsenic in food. Food and Chemical Toxicol 37:839-846

Snow, E.T., P. Sykora, T.R. Durham, and C.B. Klein. 2005. Arsenic, mode of action at biologically plausible low doses: What are the implications for low dose cancer risk?. Toxicol Applied Pharm 207(2S):557-564

Spallholz, J.E., Boylan, L.M., and Rhaman, M.M. 2004. Environmental hypothesis: is poor dietary selenium intake an underlying factor for arsenicosis and cancer in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India?. Science of the Total Environment 323: 32-32

Steinmaus, C., M.N. Bates, Y. Yuan, D. Kalman, R. Atallah, O. Rey, M Biggs, C. Hopenhayn, L Moore, B. Hoang, and A. Smith. 2006. Arsenic methylation and bladder cancer risk in case-control studies in Argentina and the United States. J Occup Environ Med 48:478-488

Steinmaus, C., Yuan, Y., Bates, M.N., and Smith, A.H. 2003. Case-control study of bladder cancer and drinking water arsenic in the western United States. Am J Epidemiol 158:1193-1201

Tollestrup, K., F.J. Frost, M. Crisiani, G.P. McMillan, R.L. Calderon, and R.S. Padilla. 2005. Arsenic-induced skin conditions indentified in southwest dermatology practices: an epidemiologic tool?. Environ Geochem Health 27:45-53

Tollestrup, K., Frost, F.J., Harter, L.C., and McMillan, G.P. 2003. Mortality among children residing near the American Smelting and Refining Company (ASARCO) copper smelter in Ruston, Washington. Archives of Environmental Health 58(11):683-691

Tsuji, J.S., Benson, R., Schoof, R.A., and Hook, G.C. 2004. Health effect levels for risk assessment of childhood exposure to arsenic. Reg Tox and Phamacology 39: 99-110

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